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The Indy Issue from Friday March 12, 2021



Visions of the Development of Salem

By Kevin Zorn

An oil on canvas mural is displayed in the post office in Salem, West Virginia. It was painted by an artist named Berni Glasgow and its production was funded
through the Treasury Department’s Section of Painting and Sculpture. It is titled “Visions of the Development of Salem” and depicts a group of people
receiving mail, in the background is a village and cattle.


Berni Glasgow was one of more than 800 artists commissioned to paint 1371 murals, the majority of which are featured in post offices.
Often mistaken as a Works Progress Administration (WPA) initiative, these Treasury funded murals were created with the intent of fostering i
nspiration in the American people who were still feeling the devastating economic and social effects of the Great Depression.


It is a testament to the shift in the ideological landscape today that I cannot believe the US Government, in tandem with local governments,
was capable of doing what the WPA accomplished. Yet, here are just some of the facts: from 1935 to 1943 8.5 million unemployed men and
women were hired by the government to build over 10,000 bridges, 620,000 miles of streets and roads, 40,000 new and 85,000 renovated
buildings including thousands of schools, gymnasiums, auditoriums, playgrounds, parks, libraries, college dormitories, tennis courts, and skating rinks.


The WPA employed artists, writers, historians, and musicians whose work directly affected the lives of millions of Americans during some of the
country’s most painful years. Musicians hired under the Federal Music Project taught free lessons to 132,000 children and adults every week.
Those hired in the Federal Writers’ Project, in addition to their popular state tourism guidebooks, recorded over 2,300 slave narratives -
an invaluable collection for scholars and historians. Under the Federal Theatre Project 1,000 plays were performed across the country every month.
Incalculable is the number of children and adults inspired by this work.


Through the colossal endeavors of the WPA in both its pre-war effort and its public projects America achieved full employment by 1942,
the same year “Visions” was painted in Salem.


It is clear that the America many of us grew up in, the structures that supported our lives, the parks we enjoyed, the schools we attended,
the infrastructure we relied upon for travel, even the art classes that inspired the next generation of creators was largely built under the
auspices of the WPA and the New Deal.


This is a salient reminder that capital “H” History is not simply a collection of memorized facts and figures, dates and obscure names.
No, History is alive in the communities in which we live. It not only teaches us, it haunts us as well. It haunts us with what was
possible before and what is possible tomorrow.


Perhaps that is the greatest battle waged in the spectacle of media and politics today - the question of what is possible.
Our expectations are managed lower and lower. We learn that the climate crisis is inevitable, that homelesness is natural,
that workers are essential until they ask for a living wage. All to say that change is impossible. Visions of better futures recede from view.

But history haunts us with an alternative. By the time Berni Glasgow painted the mural in the Salem post office, the American
government had provided millions of meaningful jobs improving, with concrete and paintbrushes, nearly every community across the nation.


Nick Taylor, the author of “American Made: The Enduring Legacy of the WPA”, writes this: 


“These ordinary men and women proved to be extraordinary beyond all expectation.
They were golden threads woven in the national fabric. In this, they shamed the political philosophy
that discounted their value and rewarded the one that placed its faith in them,
thus fulfilling the founding vision of a government by and for its people. All its people.” 


This weeks front page:



I had to dig deep to find this week’s letter. Really deep. It was tucked in the “Doddridge County” section of the WV Culture online archives. In that section I found a group of letters marked “Adjutant General’s papers of the Union Militia”. Within that file there were three letters, written in 1863, ‘64, and ‘65. They were not transcribed. After fumbling through the splotched swoops and inky swirls of Floyd Neely’s quill pen I emerged with a militia man’s request for more ammunition in order to combat a gang of Doddridge county horse thieves. Neely writes to his Adjutant General of the Butter Nut Tribe, a group of people living on the North Fork of the Hughes River who, Neely believes, aided and abetted the horse thieves. This week’s letter is one of intrigue and local defense. It’s also a letter never before published or even typed out.


(The letter was transcribed by Kelly Froeder and Kevin Zorn.)

“West Union, W.Va.

May 30th 1864

F.P. Pierpoint Esq.

Adjutant Gen.


Dear Sir,

I have caused a very considerable amount of gard duty performed by the militia of this County during the last three weeks since the last gang of Horse Thieves were discovered. We have garded up to this time all the important papers leading South from this County. We are using every effort in our power to capture the banditties if they make their appearance again. We have run short of Ammunitions especially Caps. We have some cartridges yet. I would like to have 500 or 1000 caps and one box of Cartridges for Austin Muskets 69 in cal. The safety of our property in this County requires consent of action on the part of its Citizens in the absence of regular soldiers. A portion of the militia South of the Railroad have been very prompt in the discharge of any duty required of them. While there are an other portion allmost uncontrollable. That portion are of the Butter Nut Tribe. These are a few persons residing on the waters of the North fork of Hughes River in Ritchie County and One in this County County near the Ritchie line all in the same section of County. Who from from recent developments I satisfied are aiders and abetters in the horse stealing business so far as harbouring and giving them information and think the County would be well rid of them. Hoping to hear from ___


I am your able soul -


Floyd Neely ___ 180 ___


W.Va. Militia”